Campaign posters draw on proven historical formulas. The smiling faces of George Bush Senior and Ronald Reagan promise security and try to inspire trust. The famous poster Hope shows Barack Obama with a visionary gaze in the style of a pop icon. Bernie Sanders is depicted only as a silhouette, quoting a poster portrait of Bob Dylan. The texts, too, speak for themselves: the intimate use of first name only turns a presidential candidate into a close friend, while the word “Hope” conveys a universal promise.